Finance glossary

What is cybercrime?

Bristol James
5 Min

Cybercrime is any illegal activity that involves computers, the internet, or other information communications technologies (ICTs). This includes illegal activities both directed at ICTs or carried out through ICTs, such as stealing personal information, hacking computer systems, spreading viruses, and committing online fraud.

Cybercrime is a constantly changing frontier, and as businesses continue to integrate technology into their daily operations, it is becoming a major concern. So, in this article, we’ll discuss the concept and types of cybercrime and how you can protect your organization’s data and assets from attacks.

Understanding Cybercrime

Cybercrime is any criminal activity that involves a computer, network, or networked device. These crimes can target computers or use them as tools to commit offenses. Cybercriminals often aim to make money, but some engage in cybercrime to cause damage or disruption for political, personal, or other motives. In fact, cybercrime is often linked to drug crime, fraud and corruption, money laundering and financial crime, and other serious and organized crime.

Main Characteristics of Cybercrime

In general, cybercrime has the following key characteristics:

  • Use of technology. Cybercriminals use computers, networks, and the internet to carry out illegal activities. This reliance on digital technology distinguishes it from traditional crime.
  • Financial motivation. Most cybercriminals are driven by financial gain. They use various tactics, such as ransomware attacks, online fraud, and identity theft, to steal money or valuable information.
  • Intent to cause damage. Some cybercrimes are designed to damage or disable computers and networks. These attacks can be politically or personally motivated and aim to disrupt services or cause harm.
  • Distribution of malware and illegal content. Cybercriminals often use computers to spread malware, which can infect other devices and networks. They may also distribute illegal information or materials, such as pirated content or explicit images.

Types of Cybercrime

Cybercrime encompasses various activities that exploit digital technology. Understanding the different types of cybercrime can help you identify potential threats and implement appropriate security measures within your organization. Let’s explore some of the most common types of cybercrime.

Malware Attacks

Malware, short for malicious software, includes viruses, worms, trojans, and ransomware. These programs are designed to infiltrate, damage, or disable computers and networks. 

  1. Viruses. Infect legitimate software and replicate themselves, spreading to other systems.
  2. Worms. Self-replicate and spread independently across networks, often causing significant damage.
  3. Trojans. Disguised as legitimate software, they create backdoors for cybercriminals to access systems.
  4. Ransomware. Encrypts data and demands payment for decryption keys, causing financial and operational disruption.

Phishing and Social Engineering

Phishing involves tricking individuals into providing sensitive information, such as passwords or financial details, by masquerading as a trustworthy entity.

  1. Email phishing. Cybercriminals send fraudulent emails pretending to be from legitimate sources, asking recipients to click on malicious links or provide personal information.
  2. Spear phishing. Targeted phishing attacks aimed at specific individuals or organizations, often using personalized information to appear credible.
  3. Social engineering. Manipulates individuals into divulging confidential information by exploiting psychological tactics and trust.

Identity Theft and Fraud

Cybercriminals steal personal information to commit identity theft and financial fraud. 

  1. Data breaches. Unauthorized access to large amounts of personal and financial data stored by organizations.
  2. Account takeover. Cybercriminals gain access to online accounts, such as banking or social media, and use them for fraudulent activities.
  3. Credit card fraud. Using stolen credit card information to make unauthorized purchases.

Denial-of-Service (DoS) Attacks

DoS attacks aim to overwhelm a network or website, rendering it inaccessible to legitimate users.

  1. Traditional DoS. Floods a network with traffic, causing it to crash.
  2. Distributed denial-of-service (DDoS). Involves multiple compromised systems attacking a single target, amplifying the attack’s impact.

Cyber Espionage

Cyber espionage involves the unauthorized access of confidential information for political, economic, or strategic gain.

  1. State-sponsored attacks. Nation-states conduct cyber espionage to gather intelligence, disrupt operations, or gain a competitive advantage.
  2. Corporate espionage. Companies engage in cyber espionage to steal competitors’ trade secrets or proprietary information.

Cyber Stalking and Harassment

Cyberstalking and harassment involve using digital technology to intimidate, threaten, or harm individuals.

  1. Cyberstalking. Persistent and unwanted digital monitoring or harassment of an individual.
  2. Online harassment. Includes abusive messages, doxxing (publishing private information), and other forms of digital bullying.

Exploitation of Vulnerabilities

Cybercriminals exploit software, hardware, or network weaknesses to gain unauthorized access or cause damage.

  1. Zero-day exploits. Attacks that occur on the same day a vulnerability is discovered, before a fix is available.
  2. Software exploits. Use known vulnerabilities in software to infiltrate systems and networks.

Online Piracy

Online piracy involves the illegal distribution and use of copyrighted material, such as software, music, movies, and books.

  1. Pirated software. Unauthorized copies of software distributed without proper licensing.
  2. Illegal downloads. Unauthorized sharing of digital media, often through peer-to-peer networks.

Understanding these various types of cybercrime is crucial for organizations to develop robust security measures and stay on top of potential threats, protecting themselves from becoming victims.

How to Protect Against Cybercrime

Protecting against cybercrime requires proactive measures from organizations. Here are some actionable tips to help safeguard your assets and sensitive information:

  • Establish comprehensive security policies that outline best practices for data protection, access control, and incident response. Ensure all employees are trained and aware of these policies.
  • Encourage employees to use complex passwords and enable Multi-Factor Authentication (MFA) wherever possible. This adds an extra layer of security by requiring multiple forms of verification.
  • To protect against known vulnerabilities, keep all software, operating systems, and security tools updated with the latest patches and updates.
  • Perform routine security assessments and vulnerability scans to identify and address potential weaknesses in your network and systems.
  • To monitor and defend against cyber threats, use advanced security tools such as firewalls, intrusion detection/prevention systems (IDS/IPS), and endpoint protection.
  • Maintain regular backups of critical data and ensure backups are stored securely, both on-site and off-site. Test backups periodically to ensure data can be restored effectively.
  • Train employees regularly about the latest cyber threats, phishing scams, and safe internet practices.
  • Create and regularly update an incident response plan that outlines the steps to take in the event of a cyberattack. Ensure all employees are familiar with the plan.

These tips can help your organization significantly reduce the risk of falling victim to cybercrime. Remember: staying safe from cybercrime requires vigilant and, more importantly, proactive measures.


  • Cybercrime involves illegal activities using computers, networks, or ICTs, often for financial gain but sometimes to cause damage or disruption. 
  • Key types of cybercrime include malware attacks, phishing, identity theft, DoS attacks, cyber espionage, cyberstalking, and online piracy. 
  • To protect against cybercrime, organizations should implement strong security policies, use complex passwords and MFA, keep systems updated, conduct regular security audits, employ advanced security tools, maintain secure backups, educate employees on cybersecurity, and have an incident response plan.

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